Dr. Giuseppe MAZZA
Journalist - Scientific photographer
History of the rose : from the Wild Roses towards a perfect rose
Text © Giuseppe Mazza
English translation by Peter Thompson
- Hips of Rosa canina © Giuseppe Mazza
A visit to a Rose Garden is an opportunity to retrace the history of the rose, from the most ancient to the most recent varieties, a long road towards the perfect rose designed by man; because the rose is much more than a simple product of the nature, it is a quest for beauty down the centuries, through the eyes of different civilizations.
We know from fossils that, during the Oligocene, 35-40 million years ago, there was a rose growing in Oregon which was very similar to the Rosa nutkana . It belonged to the Cinnamonmeae group like the Rosa rugosa, which today one can see in yours gardens still opening its splendid flowers to the sun with five mauve petals.
We also know that the genus Rosa grows in the wild only in the northern hemisphere, where it has accompanied man since prehistoric times.
Botanically speaking, rosebushes are close relatives to apple, pear, peach, apricot, loquat, plum, almond and cherry trees, as well as strawberry plants; in short, the fruit plants.
And their remarkable red berries, in reality false fruits called hips containing akenes, were certainly appreciated by prehistoric man, due to their edible pulp which is slightly laxative and rich in vitamin C.
Used to surviving in poor and arid soils, amongst brambles, when the rosebushes are well nourished they sometimes change their look.
- Rosa canina © Giuseppe Mazza
If we take a wild five-petal Rosa gallica and put it in a fertile and irrigated soil, without competitors around, the corolla often duplicates itself spontaneously and forms 10-15 petals. This phenomenon, it seems, is linked to the rapidity of the growth, which may induce, amongst other factors, a mutation.
Similarly, at the age of Herodotus in the fifth century BC, a Rosa canina from the fields, which normally has five petals, suddenly gave origin to a semi-plena form with ten petals.
These happenings did not go unnoticed and, in parallel with what happened in China, the rose became the first domestic, ornamental plant.
The flower became a symbol for beauty, scent and wealth; so much so that a city was called Rhodes, from Rodon, the Greek name of the rose, and many drawings of roses have been discovered on shields, coins and frescoes of the Greco-Roman world.
Greeks and Romans certainly cultivated the Rosa gallica, the red rose par excellence, which had also a medicinal variety, and the very fragrant Damask Roses, born from a crossing with the Rosa phoenicia .
Virgil tells us about an Autumn Damask, which bloomed twice a year, born from the marriage of a Rosa gallica with the Rosa moschata , also a species of Asia Minor; it had arrived from the Himalayas many centuries before.
- Rosa gallica officinalis © Giuseppe Mazza
Pliny the Elder, in his Naturalis Historia, tells of very fragrant roses, each with a hundred petals, which decorated the outer side of wreaths.
Already by then the rose had come a long way, but the colours of the petals in those days were limited to white, pink and red, and it wasn’t until the end of the Middle Ages, with the introduction of the Rosa foetida, that we saw the first yellow-coloured rose.
This was a fundamental step in the history of the rose, because from this species, native to Persia and south western Asia, all of the yellow and orange nuances of the modern varieties were derived, thanks to the cross-breeding with one of the first Hybrid Teas.
In the Middle Ages there were also the Alba roses, possessing characteristics of the Rosa canina , the Damask Rose and the Rosa gallica. This variety had an insuperable scent and grey-green foliage in perfect harmony with the pastel tones of the petals, which vary from pale pink to pure white.
From the second half of the eighteenth century, the world of horticulture was in full bloom. The Rosa x centifolia came into fashion, a pompous variety of one hundred perfumed petals, created in Holland and known also as “Painters’ Rose”. We often find it represented in paintings and frescoes of the time, as well as on pottery and fabrics.
- Rosa foetida persiana © Giuseppe Mazza
By the end of the century the first China roses arrived in Europe, with shipments of tea from the East India Company; they were immediately christened Tea-scented Roses, or more simply Tea , because of the scent of the cases in which they were travelling.
To avoid any misunderstanding, it should be made clear that the petals of these flowers do not smell of the aroma given out by an open box of tea; they do, nonetheless, have a typical fragrance with a dry and pungent basis, never sweet. Comparable, if one must, to the smell of the fresh leaves of tea when broken with the fingers.
They show unusual buds, long and sharp, and come from the old breeding of the Rosa chinensis and the Rosa gigantea, a climbing species of the Himalayas which reaches up to 30 metres in height thanks to its strong, hooked thorns. Above all, these exotic roses were always in perpetual blossom.
From their marriage with the European varieties, the roses of our gardens would inherit the capacity to bloom more than once, which until now was a trait reserved only for the Autumn Damask ; we thus talk about Hybrid Perpetuals, capable of producing flowers throughout the vegetative season.
Successful breeding between the Teas and the Hybrid Perpetuals finally resulted in the Hybrid Tea roses, which are nowadays seen as great queens of the flower world.
The end of the eighteenth century also saw the arrival of the Rosa rugosa from Japan, which, save for some chance crossings, established itself in a rather independent fashion, with numerous varieties which magnified the natural beauty of the single flowers, not to mention the veined leaves, rough but slightly glossy, and the large fruits.
- Rosa gigantea © Giuseppe Mazza
They are related to the Bourbon Rose, originating from the island of Bourbon, now known as Réunion, from the breeding of a Rosa chinensis with an Autumn Damask; of the Portland, born from a scarlet rose, probably a hybrid of Rosa chinensis , Damask and Gallica, discovered in Italy and brought to London by the Duchess of Portland; and of the Noisette, a variety with exceptional repeat flowering, created by the two Noisette brothers, one a nurseryman in Paris, the other in South Carolina, who crossed a Rosa chinensis with the Rosa moschata .
From another small group of roses with flowers united in corymbs, the Dwarf Polyanthas, born from the union of the Rosa multiflora var. nana with miniature China roses, Poulsen was able to obtain roses with bigger flowers, crossing them with Hybrid Teas, assembled in small clusters called Hybrid Polyanthas, or, simply Poulsen roses.
And from repeated crossings of these with Hybrid Teas, the Floribunda roses finally evolved, which today play an important role in our garden landscapes.
But, how does hybridisation work? How did we give birth to the 45.000 varieties of roses in existence today?
Sometimes, it’s simple. When nature gives us a helping hand in cultivation, a genetic mutation can occur spontaneously: a shrubby species can suddenly become a climbing species, or the petals, unexpectedly, can change in colour.
It is the case, for instance, of the Excelsa rose, which at the Roseraie Princesse Grace de Monaco has begun to fabricate a branch with candid snowy-white corollas, close to its regular crimson-red flowers. This is enough for us to isolate it, to reproduce it using the vegetative method, and if the variety has not yet been registered, to give it a name. On average, 10 years are needed to create a new rose; a long period of teamwork, both artistic and scientific.
With a good dose of perception, and lot of experience, the rose breeder meticulously chooses the parents in accordance with his desired aim. He has to keep in mind the parameters which are often incompatible, such as the colour, perfume, repeat-flowering capability, look and resistance to diseases.
Then he does what a bee would have done in the wild: to take the pollen from the plant chosen as father, and place it on the feminine organ of the plant selected to be the mother.
The method of hybridization is always the same.
- Rosa chinensis ’Mutabilis’ © Giuseppe Mazza
Firstly, the flower of the future bride is prepared. The petals, which no longer need to seduce anyone, and the stamen, the masculine organs which might cause incest, are all taken off.
Then with a small brush, the feminine organ, the stigma, is powdered delicately with the pollen collected from the other plant, and we protect the entirety with a small envelope, in order to avoid any accidental crossings.
The granules of pollen germinate and produce some small filaments, the pollen tubes, which carry the sperm cells of the plant up to the ovules in the womb of the rose.
Hundreds of seeds come out from a single pollination. The chromosome combinations are numerous, and the children will each be different.
January and February are the best months for seeding. Every small plant has a numbered pot, and from the first days of the germination, the information concerning growth, resistance to bad weather and to diseases are all noted down with great care.
Just to give an idea of the enormous work, at Meilland, the largest breeder of roses in the world, they start with 100.000 germinated seeds for an initial selection of 6.000 small plants.
These are kept under observation for one year, and, in a second phase of selection, are reduced to 600.
The chosen ones will be then multiplied by vegetative means, and sent for 5-7 years of open-air observations to gardens scattered all over the world. This is because a rose which grows well under certain weather conditions will seldom adapt to all climates.
The few chosen ones will be finally patented throughout the world, for 15, 20, or 25 years according to national legislation, with a unique name, often unpronounceable, like MEIhourag, which for the modern roses begins almost always with the first three letters of the name of the breeder; in this case, MEI for Meilland.
Naturally, nobody would ever understand a rose called MEIhourag. For sale purposes, it is necessary to create a catchier name, depending on the language.
So in France, our MEIhourag is known as Arielle Dombasle, and in Italy as ‘Lea Massari’.
For each rose sold in nurseries, or offered as a cut flower, the breeder gets a royalty. Once the period of protection has passed, however, the variety falls into the public domain and anyone can reproduce it.
- Rosa rugosa ’Scabrosa’ © Giuseppe Mazza
The goose who lays the golden eggs can therefore become a dangerous competitor. The creator will have to convince the clients that the variety is by now obsolete, and that it had its faults after all.
To exploit its renaming, they will perhaps choose a similar sale name for the new queen, and will extol its extraordinary colour and fragrance with good publicity, not forgetting its awards.
But how does their formidable tool of seduction originate?
Whilst in most flowers the perfume springs out from the nectar, here it comes from the petals, and this only when they have reached a certain stage of ripening.
The perfume of the roses comes from a particular combination of terpene and alcohol, which varies according to the variety, the cultivation, and the climate; and the observer himself also plays his role.
Man, in fact, has a relatively bad perception of fragrance, something which deteriorates with age. For this reason some affirm that a rose has a certain perfume, and others assert that it has a completely different one.
It’s because of this that we can no longer recognise some of the perfumes of our infancy, and when they give awards for the fragrances of roses at the famous Bagatelle competition in Paris, the judges of the event are often children.
In order to understand each other, the creators of roses talk about five tones of fragrance: The green note, which evokes the smell of freshly-mown grass. The pink note, the rarest, which evokes the perfume of the ancient roses. The citric note, which makes us think of verbena, lemon and citronella. The note of fruit, with fragrances of peach, apricot, raspberry and strawberry.
- A sport of en ’Excelsa’ rose © Giuseppe Mazza
The spicy note, which recalls vanilla, cinnamon, or nutmeg.
And given that the petals of the florists’ roses, which are cut when in bud, have not had the time to ripen, it is necessary to go to a garden in order to truly appreciate the fragrance of a rose.
So, in May, the Roseraie Princesse Grace de Monaco becomes a magical world of perfumes, a place for reliving distant times, and for observing, day after day, the development of more than 400 varieties of roses. A kaleidoscope of shapes, colours, and perfumes, each in perpetual change.
A rare event in nature, but nonetheless the case for some Proteaceae flowers which I came across in Australia and South Africa, is that some roses change their look as they age. The colour of the petals, in fact, comes from their complex structure and chemistry.
If we observe the petals under a microscope, they appear formed by three strata: the coloured cells of the upper side, a conical shape which gives a velvety look; the flat, coloured cells of the underside, which often create silvery shimmers; and, in the middle, an area without pigments, with miniscule air-pockets, so done to emphasize the colours with a fleshy iridescence.
There are many dyes, divided in two groups: the water-soluble ones, called anthocyans, which lodge in the vacuoles of the cells and change colour according to variation in pH; and the liposoluble ones, which dissolve only in fat substances, and remain outside the vacuoles in special organs called chromoplasts.
The final colour and the shades of the petals come from the combination of these components, which are at times at odds with one another.
So with time, as the pH of the petals changes, a white flower can become almost red. Many petals display an elegant contrast of colours at the apex, a small border more or less accentuated, simply because these parts were formed earlier and, in ripening, have lost their acidity first.
- Field of roses © Giuseppe Mazza
To complicate things, the upper and lower sides of the petals can have different colourings, as is the case with many modern roses; one side can be pink, for example, and the other yellow. Colour mutations can affect the whole petal or only some areas, to the delight of the impressionist painters, by whom several bi-coloured roses have been honoured.
And what about the blue rose?
It does not exist in nature, as the rose does not have delphinidin, the pigment present in the Delphinium and the petunias, which is the basis of the blue colour in the flower world.
After centuries of hybridising between roses, we have been able, at best, to display some shades of mauve, but if we wish to have a truly blue rose, other bridges have to be crossed.
The Suntory Company in Japan has inserted, using genetic manipulation, the delphinidin of petunias and other species into the gene pool of a white rose; it, however, has begun to show lilac petals with reddish tendencies, because the vacuole containing this pigment is, by nature, too acidic.
This is similar to what happens, though the process is different, with the blue hydrangeas, which when the soil is unsuitable, produce mauve coloured flowers.
For those who are truly in love with blue roses, in Holland they have recently discovered a protein which controls the pH of the vacuoles of petals, and so maybe in the future they will get the basicity necessary to cultivate blue, genetically modified roses.
On the other hand, black roses exist already. For instance, the Black Baccara is so rich in purple-red pigments that it seems almost black.
It is a matter, for the most part, of cultivating varieties in greenhouses as cut flowers. This is because their dye, cyanide, darkens the petals under the sun at high temperatures. This initially gives them a pleasant look, but it becomes generally undesirable later on, with a burnt, parched appearance.
© Giuseppe Mazza
The reproduction, even partial, of the text and the photos without the Author’s written permission is forbidden.
The photographic file of Giuseppe Mazza
Rosa Safrano - Rosa Iskra - Rosa Maigold - Rosa Masquerade - Rosa Iskra - Rosa Mitsouko
Old Rose with thorny stem - Hybridization Rose - Rosa sericea omeiensis - Rosa Scarlet Multirose
Rosa rubrifolia - Rosa Rustica 91 - Rosa Rush - Rosa Schneeberg - Rosa Marie Van Houtte - Rosa Sarah Van Fleet
Climbing roses - Old Climbing rose- Rosa Rendez-vous - Rosa Chunga
Princess Grace de Monaco Rose Garden - Rosa Caprice de Meilland - Princess Grace de Monaco Rose Garden - Bagatelle Rose Garden - Princess Grace de Monaco Rose Garden
Rosa Cornelia - Rosa Complicata - Rosa Anadia - Rosa roxburgii plena
Rosa roxburgii plena - Rosa Cumbaya - Rosa Ghislaine de Féligonde - Rosa Douceur Normande
Rosa Paul’s Himalayan Musk - Rosa Patte de Velours - Rosa White Meidiland
Rosa White Meidiland - Rosa Treasure Trove - Rosa Stanwell Perpetual - Rosa Penelope
Rosa Le Cid
Construction plans for the Princesse Grace de Monaco Rose Garden - Drawing of the gate and its building - Aerial view at the beginning of the works
Progression of works - Inauguration close to the statue of Princess Grace
Rosa Rainier III
Rosa Glamis Castle - Rosa John Allen
Rosa Sweetheart Rose - Rosa Soir de Fête - Rosa Souvenir de Marcel Proust - Rosa Sharifa Asma
Rosa Violon d’Ingres - Princess Grace de Monaco Rose Garden
Princess Grace de Monaco Rose Garden
Princess Grace de Monaco Rose Garden
Princess Grace de Monaco Rose Garden
Princess Grace de Monaco Rose Garden
Princess Grace de Monaco Rose Garden
Princess Grace de Monaco Rose Garden
Princess Grace de Monaco Rose Garden
© Giuseppe Mazza
This is the list with synonyms of the reproduced varieties :
ROSA CHINENSIS VIRIDIFLORA
ROSA FOETIDA BICOLOR
ROSA FOETIDA PERSIANA
ROSA X SCHARNKEANA
ROSA A CAPELLA - Tanallepa
ROSA ABBAYE DE CLUNY - Meibrinpay
ROSA ABBE LEMIRE - Oranat
ROSA ABRAHAM DARBY - Auscot
ROSA ALBA MULTIROSE - Meiflopan
ROSA ALEXANDER - Harlex
ROSA ALLEGRO - Meiarlo
ROSA ALPHA - Meinastur
ROSA ALPHA MINUETTO = ALPHA MINIJET - Meikilaylo
ROSA ALPHONSE DAUDET - Meirouve
ROSA AMBER QUEEN - Harroony
ROSA AMERICAN PILLAR
ROSA ANADIA - Meirameca
ROSA ANGELA - Korday
ROSA ANNA - Pekcougel
ROSA ANNA FORD - Harpiccolo
ROSA ANNE HARKNESS - Harkaramel
ROSA ANNE-MARIE TRECHSLIN - Meifour
ROSA AQUITAINE NIRPAISAGE - Poulnoz
ROSA ARC DE TRIOMPHE - Jacale
ROSA ASTRA - Ruizesak
ROSA AVOCET - Harpluto
ROSA BANCO 86 - Lapdef
ROSA BANTRY BAY
ROSA BARON MEILLANDINA - Meitifran
ROSA BARONNE EDMOND DE ROTHSCHILD - Meigrisosar
ROSA BEAUTE’ - Mallerin
ROSA BELLA MINIJET - Meilarac
ROSA BELLA ROSA - Korwonder
ROSA BELLE DE LONDRES = COMPASSION
ROSA BETTINA - Mepalsar
ROSA BIJOU D’OR = GOLDEN JEWEL - Tanledolg
ROSA BINGO - Meipotal
ROSA BLACK BACCARA - Meidebenne
ROSA BLANC DOUBLE DE COUBERT
ROSA BLUE MOON - Tannacht
ROSA BLUE MOON = SISSI - Tannacht
ROSA BONICA 82 - Meidomonac
ROSA BORA BORA = ASHRAM - Tanmarsa
ROSA BORDURE ROSE - Delbara
ROSA BORDURE VIVE - Delboviv
ROSA BOURBON QUEEN = QUEEN OF BOURBONS
ROSA BROCELIANDE - Adaterhuit
ROSA BRUNOCELLA - Lenbru
ROSA BUFF BEAUTY
ROSA BUFFALO BILL = REGENSBERG - Macyoumis
ROSA CAMPANILE - Deltrut
ROSA CAN CAN = LEGGLOW
ROSA CANDY MINIJET - Meinipol
ROSA CAPRICE DE MEILLAND - Meisionver
ROSA CARDINAL DE RICHELIEU
ROSA CAROLINE DE MONACO - Meipierar
ROSA CASSANDRE - Meideuji
ROSA CATHERINE DENEUVE - Meipraserpi
ROSA CENTENAIRE DE LOURDES - Delge
ROSA CHACOK = PIGALLE - Meicloux
ROSA CHAPEAU DE NAPOLEON = CRESTED MOSS
ROSA CHARLES DE GAULLE - Mellanein
ROSA CHARLES AZNAVOUR - Meibeausai
ROSA CHARLESTON - Meiridgesar
ROSA CHARLOTTE RAMPLING - Meihirvin
ROSA CHARTREUSE DE PARME - Delviola
ROSA CHATEAU D’AMBOISE - Delrouvel
ROSA CHERRY MULTIROSE - Meirumour
ROSA CHICAGO PEACE - Johnago
ROSA CHORUS - Meijulita
ROSA CHRISTOPHE COLOMB - Meinronsse Meironse
ROSA CHRYSLER IMPERIAL
ROSA CHUNGA - Morpaplay
ROSA CLAIR MATIN - Meimont
ROSA CLARIDGE - Peklipink
ROSA CLAUDE MONET - Jacdesa
ROSA COCKTAIL - Meimick
ROSA COCORICO - Meilasso
ROSA COLBERT - Delcolb
ROSA COLIBRI - Meimal
ROSA COLUCHE - Meibarum
ROSA COMMANDANT COUSTEAU - Adharman
ROSA COMTE DE CHAMBORD
ROSA COMTESSE DU BARRY - Havobog
ROSA CONCORDE 92 - Meidorsun
ROSA CONRAD FERDINAND MEYER
ROSA COPPELIA 76 - Meigurami
ROSA CORAIL MINIJET - Meiprovan
ROSA CUISSE DE NYMPHE EMUE = GREAT MAIDEN’S BLUSH
ROSA CUMBAYA - Meizabo
ROSA DANCE OF JOY
ROSA DANDY MINIJET = PUCE MEILLAND ROSE - Meiselgra
ROSA DAINTY BESS
ROSA DAY LIGHT-Interlight
ROSADEBORAH - Meinoiral
ROSA DECOR ARLEQUIN - Meizourayor
ROSA DIORESSENCE - Deldiore
ROSA DOUBLE DELIGHT - Andeli
ROSA DOUCEUR NORMANDE - Meipopul
ROSA DREAMING PARADE -Pouloral
ROSA DYNASTIE - Meipitac
ROSA ECLIPSE - Saudora
ROSA EDGAR DEGAS - Delstrisang
ROSA EDITH DE MARTINELLI - Oradit
ROSA ELINA = PEAUDOUCE - Dicjana
ROSA EXCELSA = RED DOROTHY PERKINS
ROSA EYEPAINT - Maceye
ROSA EYEOPENER = TAPIS ROUGE = ERICA = EYE OPENER - Interop
ROSA FANDANGO - Meijade
ROSA FERDY - Keitoli
ROSA FÊTES GALANTHES - Deldido
ROSA FIDELIO - Meichest
ROSA FLORIAN = TENDER NIGHT - Meilaur
ROSA FRANCE INFO - Deljam
ROSA FRANCE LIBRE - Deljaunor
ROSA FRANCIS E. LESTER
ROSA FRAU DAGMAR HASTRUP = FRAU DAGMAR HARTOPP
ROSA FRIESIA = SUNSPRITE - Korresia
ROSA FRÜHLINGSGOLD = SPRING GOLD
ROSA FUCHSIA MULTIROSE - Meipelta
ROSA GABRIEL NOYELLE
ROSA GALLICA OFFICINALIS
ROSA GENERAL SCHABLIKINE
ROSA GHISLAINE DE FELIGONDE
ROSA GITES DE FRANCE - Meiwaton
ROSA GLAMIS CASTLE - Auslevel
ROSA GLOIRE DE DIJON
ROSA GOLD GLOW
ROSA GOLDEN CELEBRATION - Ausgold
ROSA GOLDEN MIMI - Meispreyo
ROSA GOLDEN SHOWERS
ROSA GOLDEN WINGS
ROSA GRACE DE MONACO - Meimit
ROSA GRAHAM THOMAS
ROSA GRAND CHÂTEAU - Tanelorak
ROSA GRAND NORD - Delgrord
ROSA GRAND SIECLE - Delegran
ROSA GRANDPA DICKSON = IRISH GOLD
ROSA GRUSS AN TEPLITZ
ROSA GRIMALDI - Delstror
ROSA HANDEL - Macha
ROSA HECTOR BERLIOZ - Harzelt
ROSA HERIFLOR - Saubaflor
ROSA HILBRILA - Hilbrila
ROSA ICEBERG = FEE DES NEIGES - Korbin
ROSA IMPERATOR - Meiperator
ROSA INGRID BERGMAN - Poulman
ROSA ISKRA - Meihaòti
ROSA JACDECO - Jacdeco
ROSA JACQUES CARTIER
ROSA JAMES PEREIRE - Meinorep
ROSA JARDINS DE BAGATELLE - Meimafris
ROSA JARDINS DE FRANCE - Meizebul
ROSA JAUNE DESPREZ
ROSA JAYNE AUSTIN - Ausbreak
ROSA JEAN MONNET - Pekcram
ROSA JOHN ALLEN
ROSA JOHN LAING
ROSA JOHNNIE WALKER
ROSA JOLI MOME
ROSA JOLLY MINIJET - Lavjack
ROSA JULIE DELBARD - Deljuli
ROSA KARINE SAUVAGEOT - Saukar
ROSA KONRAD ADENAUER - Tanedauk
ROSA LA PASSIONATA - Delup
ROSA LA REINE VICTORIA
ROSA LA SEVILLANA - Meigekanu
ROSA LADY MEILLANDINA - Meilarco
ROSA LADY ROSE - Korlady
ROSA LANDORA = SUNBLEST
ROSA LA NINA - Meigideon
ROSA LAS VEGAS
ROSA LAVENDER DREAM - Interlav
ROSA LEA MASSARI = ARIELLE DOMBASLE - Meihourag
ROSA LE CID - Dorpark
ROSA LE ROUGE ET LE NOIR - Delcart
ROSA LES AMOUREUX DE PEYNET - Meitobla
ROSA LILI MARLENE - Korlima
ROSA LOOPING - Meirovonex
ROSA LOUIS DE FUNES - Meirestif
ROSA LOVER’S MEETING
ROSA MADAME CAROLINE TESTOUT
ROSA MADAME EDOUARD HERRIOT
ROSA MADELEINE RIVOIRE
ROSA MAGIC MULTIROSE - Meibonrib
ROSA MAJORETTE 86 - Meipiess
ROSA MAMY BLUE - Delblue
ROSA MANGO - Dorapri
ROSA MANOU MEILLAND - Meitulimon
ROSA MARECHAL LE CLERC = TOUCH OF CLASS - Kricarlo
ROSA MARIA MATHILDA - Lenmar
ROSA MARIE VAN HOUTTE
ROSA MARJOLAINE - Sauniber
ROSA MASCOTTE 77 - Meitiloly
ROSA MATILDA = MARCEL PAGNOL - Velveteen
ROSA MAURICE UTRILLO - Delstavo
ROSA MEIBERCHAN - Meiberchan
ROSA MEIBORFIL - Meiborfil
ROSA MEIDOINA - Meidoina
ROSA MEILLANDINA - Meirov
ROSA MEILLANDINA RAMPICHELLA-Meijikatarsar
ROSA MEILLAND’S ROSE HOLSTENTOR - Meimuide
ROSA MELI-MELO - Orastrip
ROSA MARY ROSE - Ausmary
ROSA MESSIRE DELBARD - Delsire
ROSA MICHKA - Meivaleir
ROSA MILROSE - Delbir
ROSA MINIJET - Meicarsel
ROSA MINIJET - Meigrolet
ROSA MITSOUKO - Delnat
ROSA MON JARDIN & MA MAISON - Meichavrin
ROSA MONTBATTEN - Harmantelle
ROSA NEIGE D’AVRIL
ROSA NEW FACE - Interclem
ROSA NICCOLO PAGANINI - Meicairma
ROSA NOËLLA NABONNAND
ROSA NOVAÏA - Oragofe
ROSA NUAGE PARFUME = FRAGRANT CLOUD - Tanellis
ROSA NUIT D’ORIENT - Stebigpu
ROSA OLYMPIAD - Macauck
ROSA ORANGE FIRE - Interfire
ROSA ORANGE MEILLANDINA - Meijikatar
ROSA ORANGE RAMPICHELLA - Meijikatarsar
ROSA ORANGINA - Oramont
ROSA PANTHEON - Dicjoon
ROSA PANTHERE ROSE - Meicapinal
ROSA PAPA MEILLAND - Meisar
ROSA PARIS D’YVES SAINT LAURENT - Meivamo
ROSA PARURE D’OR - Delmir
ROSA PASO DOBLE - Meilanodin
ROSA PAUL CESANNE - Jacdeli
ROSA PAUL GAUGUIN - Jacdebu
ROSA PAUL NEYRON
ROSA PAUL RICARD - Meinivoz
ROSA PAUL’S SCARLET CLIMBER
ROSA PATTE DE VELOURS - Meimater
ROSA PEACE = MADAME A. MEILLAND = GIOIA = GLORIA DEI
ROSA PEARL DRIFT - Leggab
ROSA PECHE MEILLANDINA - Meixerul
ROSA PAUL’S HIMALAYAN MUSK RAMBLER
ROSA PERFUME BEAUTY - Meiniacin
ROSA PERNILLE POULSEN
ROSA PHILIPPE ELLE - Meibderos
ROSA PHILIPPE NOIRET - Meizoele
ROSA PIERETTE LUBERON - Uhlater
ROSA PIERRE DE RONSARD - Meiviolin
ROSA PINK FIRE - Interpin
ROSA PINK GROOTENDORST
ROSA PINK LA SEVILLANA - Meigeroka
ROSA PINK MEILLANDINA - Meijidiro
ROSA PINK SPRAY - Lenray
ROSA POT O’ GOLD - Dicdivine
ROSA PORTHOS CLIMBING - Lapadsar
ROSA PRELUDE - Keimove
ROSA PRESIDENT ARMAND ZINSCH - Delzinsch
ROSA PRESIDENT LEOPOLD SENGHOR - Meiluminac
ROSA PRESTIGE DE BELLEGARDE - Eveprest
ROSA PRESTIGE DE LYON = EMANUELA GANCIA - Meinimo
ROSA PRINCE DE MONACO - Poulart
ROSA PRINCE MEILLANDINA - Meirutral
ROSA PRINCESSE DE MONACO - Meimagarmic
ROSA PRISTINE - Jacpico
ROSA PULLMAN ORIENT EXPRESS = LOVE & PEACE - Baipeace
ROSA PUR CAPRICE - Deljavert
ROSA RAINIER III
ROSA RED MULTIROSE - Meineble
ROSA RED RASCAL - Jacbed
ROSA RELAX - Meivivara
ROSA RENDEZ-VOUS - Meipobil
ROSA REPENS MULTIROSE - Meilontig
ROSA REPUBLIQUE DE GENEVE - Lapej
ROSA RESURRECTION - Krilexis
ROSA RIMOSA - Meigronurisar
ROSA ROBIN HOOD
ROSA ROBUSTA - Korgosa
ROSA ROMANTIC MEILLANDINA - Meidanclar
ROSA ROSE A PARFUM DE L’HAY
ROSA ROSE CELESTE - Delroceles
ROSA ROSE DE RENNES - Adaharos
ROSA ROSE DES CISTERCIENS - Delarle
ROSA ROSE MINUETTO = ROSE MINIJET - Meirosfon
ROSA ROSERAIE DU CHATELET - SAUban
ROSA ROSY CARPET - Intercarp
ROSA ROXANNE - Lapdal
ROSA ROXBURGII PLENA
ROSA ROYAL MEILLANDINA - Schobitet
ROSA RUSH - Lenmobri
ROSA RUSTICA 91 - Moryelrug
ROSA SAHARA - Tanarasah
ROSA SANTA CATALINA
ROSA SARAH VAN FLEET
ROSA SCARLET MULTIROSE - Meikrotal
ROSA SCHNEEBERG - Schneeberg
ROSA SENATEUR LAFOLLETTE
ROSA SEXY REXY - Macrexy
ROSA SHARIFA ASMA - Ausreef
ROSA SMARTY - Intersmart
ROSA SNOW MEILLANDINA - Meigovin
ROSA SOIR DE FETE
ROSA SONIA MEILLAND CLIMBING = SWEET PROMISE - Meihelvetsar
ROSA SORAYA - Meienorsar
ROSA SOUVENIR DE PIERRE LEPERDRIEUX
ROSA SOUVENIR DE MARCEL PROUST - Delpapy
ROSA STANWELL PERPETUAL
ROSA STARLITE - Meilupin
ROSA STEPHANIE DE MONACO = PORTRAIT - Meypink
ROSA STRIPED MEILLANDINA - Mormum
ROSA STRIPED MOSS
ROSA SUN KING - Meinarval
ROSA SUNLIGHT = GRISBI
ROSA SUNNY MINIJET - Meigloyel
ROSA SUPER STAR = TROPICANA - Tanorstar
ROSA SOURIRE D’ENFANT - Oraroro
ROSA SOURIRE D’ORCHIDEE
ROSA SUTTER’S GOLD
ROSA SWEET JULIET - Ausleap
ROSA SWEETHEART ROSE
ROSA SWEETLIPS MINIJET - Meilipo
ROSA SYLVIE VARTAN
ROSA TASSILI - Oraju
ROSA TENDRESSE = COMTESSE DE SEGUR - Deltendre
ROSA THE MC CARTNEY ROSE - Meizeli
ROSA THERESE BUGNET
ROSA THERESE DE LISIEUX - Orablan
ROSA THE QUEEN ELISABETH ROSE = ROSA QUEEN OF ENGLAND
ROSA TILLA MEILLANDINA - Meirulex
ROSA TINO ROSSI - Meicelna
ROSA TOUR EIFFEIL 2000 - Delrugro
ROSA TOURMALINE - Delfri
ROSA TRAVIATA = ROSA XAVIERE - Meilavio
ROSA TREASURE TROVE
ROSA TRIOLET - Oradon
ROSA ULRICH BRUNNER
ROSA VALENCIA - Koreklia
ROSA VENT D’ETE - Korlanum
ROSA VERONESE - Richanize
ROSA VICOMTESSE PIERRE DU FOU
ROSA VICTOR HUGO = SENATOR BURDA - Meivestal
ROSA VILLE DU ROEULX
ROSA VIOLON D’INGRES - Meibosnio
ROSA VIRNA LISI - Meixetal
ROA WETTRA = CHERRY CHINKS
ROSA WHITE FLEURETTE - Briseflu
ROSA WHITE MULTIROSE - Meicoublan
ROSA WILLIAM LOBB
ROSA WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE - Ausroyal
ROSA YAKIMOUR - Meipsilon
ROSA YORK AND LANCASTER
ROSA YVES PIAGET - Meivildo
ROSA YVONNE RABIER
ROSA ZEPHIRINE DROUHIN
ROSA ROXBURGHII NORMALIS
ROSA RUGOSA ALBA
ROSA RUGOSA HANSA
ROSA RUGOSA SCABROSA
ROSA SERICEA OMEIENSIS CRYSOCARPA
ROSA SERICEA OMEIENSIS PTERACANTHA